Resemble what human hunter-gatherer ancestors ate thousands of years ago
Is the Paleo diet, an eating plan modeled on prehistoric human diets, right for modern humans?
A paleo diet is a dietary plan based on foods similar to what might have been eaten during the Paleolithic era, which dates from approximately 2.5 million to 10,000 years ago.
A paleo diet typically includes lean meats, fish, fruits, vegetables, nuts and seeds — foods that in the past could be obtained by hunting and gathering. A paleo diet limits foods that became common when farming emerged about 10,000 years ago. These foods include dairy products, legumes and grains.
What to eat
Fruits, vegetables, nuts and seeds;
Lean meats, grass-fed animals or wild game;
Fish, such as salmon, mackerel and tuna;
Oils from fruits and nuts;
Potatoes; highly processed foods in general
What to avoid
Grains, such as wheat, oats and barley;
Legumes, such as beans, lentils, peanuts and peas;
Dairy products; refined sugar, salt.
The aim of a paleo diet is to return to a way of eating that’s more like what early humans ate. The diet’s reasoning is that the human body is genetically mismatched to the modern diet that emerged with farming practices — an idea known as the discordance hypothesis.
Farming changed what people ate and established dairy, grains and legumes as additional staples in the human diet. This relatively late and rapid change in diet, according to the hypothesis, outpaced the body’s ability to adapt. This mismatch is believed to be a contributing factor to the prevalence of obesity, diabetes and heart disease today.
A number of randomized clinical trials have compared the paleo diet to other eating plans, such as the Mediterranean Diet or the Diabetes Diet. Overall, these trials suggest that a paleo diet may provide some benefits when compared with diets of fruits, vegetables, lean meats, whole grains, legumes and low-fat dairy products. These benefits may include:
More weight loss;
Improved glucose tolerance;
Better blood pressure control;
Better appetite management.
However, longer trials with large groups of people randomly assigned to different diets are needed to understand the long-term, overall health benefits and possible risks of a paleo diet.